domingo, 11 de septiembre de 2011

Welcome

There is no age for this hobby but for many of you it may be more important. In my case the flight simulator has help me very much with my career, particularly with the instrument flying because is the best way to try at home each procedures you want all day if you want, without paying for expensive flight simulators hours.
I'm being flying since I was 15 years old and know with more than 2,500 hrs in real life, I still flying at home in my flight simulator and i love it. I can say that I should have more flight simulator hours than in real life! 
You can check some of my videos here: http://www.youtube.com/user/gallitosoto2?feature=mhee



                                

People think that a Flight Simulator Cockpit may be expensive and difficult to build, but here I will show you  how we can design and build a cockpit without spending a lot of money, wherever it depends on each one.
In my case my cockpit is not the most beautiful of all but It is enough for me. I will explain here step by step how to make this possible.
For this kind of process you might know a little bit on electronics, but I will try to explain the easiest way to do it.
I hope this blog will be helpful for you. Enjoy...


Design

Our first step will be to create the heart of our cockpit, we are talking about the structure that is the most important thing here. The structure will support the screen(s), panels, flight controls, etc. We have to start thinking about what kind of cockpit do we want. For example, if we want a large cockpit it would be necessary to take a lot of space like an entire room or like my case I took a place in my leaving room and that was enough for me, but it depends on each one.
After we got our idea we need to draw our design in a piece of paper. I recommend you to take a notebook in order to write in all your flight simulator cockpit progress.

In our design we must draw wherever each hardware will take place like your screen(s), yoke, power console and the rudder pedals. We can also define for example, where your engine panel will be placed, etc.
The cockpit must be divided in different panels in order to be more organize and build one by one without doing a mess.






For our cockpit we need to choose what kind of aircraft we use to fly. Like this it will be easier to know what kind of systems will be required and in which place. For example in my case I choose the King Air 350, so we know that the engine panel are in the left side of the captain on the lower area. This is very common in almost every Beechcraft aircraft's that is very different if we compare with Piper aircraft's that have the engine panel at the upper area. But we can make a combination of them, In my case I also located some bottoms and switches in my upper panel to simulate other aircraft systems different than Beechcraft aircraft's and their function are easy to change using the flight simulator key board assignments.
When we have finished we must draw again our structure but divided by panels. This panels will be for example the engines systems, the auto-pilot, light switches, nav-com radios, other flight sim functions like pause, exit, review, etc...



Sorry about this picture but I'm not very good at drawing! Wherever this image shows a quick view of the location of some switches in each panel.
Once we have all our idea, we need to start building it! First we need sheets of wood that we can buy anywhere. Once you have your wood at home we can start taking measures of them. Take one sheet of wood and draw one of your panel on it, like your engine control panel for example. (Off course you will draw it with your chosen size). Do this with every panel of your design.
The wood is perfect for carrying each electric component and it will help us for our support. We can make all the structure with wood it doesn't matter, if it support your structure its ok. In may case I did that more home made by using my old weight bench for structure and then I mount all wood panels on it.





After your panels are draw on the wood sheets, we need to cut them in order to get each panel by separately. Then this panels we need to mount them together in order to get our cockpit skeleton.
Once the structure is finished we need to build on it some places to put on it the most essential parts, the yoke, power console, rudder pedals and screen(s). We must be sure to locate this parts in a place that you are comfortable for flying specially your yoke. Remember you are going to spend many hours flying in your simulator.
For mounting the hardware we can use pieces of wood for making little structures for each of them. Be sure to mount them firmly to the whole structure. Once your hardware is located into your structure, now we can start to make it work!


 
Interface

Here we will need first a good place to set our PC in order to let a good distance between the system connections and the PC.
For the connections I recommend you to buy a carpet protector in PVC, this ones you can buy them at any office supply store. This ones are very easy to manage, specially to cut them and thrill them. Once at your home, we are going to make panels in the same size of our wood sheets panels. We need to do this for making space between the wood and the PVC to hide behind all the cables.
After you have cut each panel you need to take a marker and draw on the PVC every switch and bottom that   where they will take place like we thought before. You can see an example in one of my videos here:   http://www.youtube.com/user/gallitosoto2?feature=mhee#p/u/69/iQYtBbGualo
Oour panels must be cut and they must fit in the same way to your structure. locate your panels in your structure to be sure of this. For making space between them, use some screws like this:





Once you are sure that this panels fit to the structure let start to making the connections.
May be for many of you this pictures are like to be a little complicated but the thing in electronic connections is to connect one by one and verify that it works. After doing like 70 swithes connections you will have cables all over your place. Imagine you need like 2 1/2 meters for each connection, so you must be organize!
Ok, so now comes the magic of this cockpit flight simulator. Like I said before, it is very cheap than it appears because this cockpit does not required any software and special hardware to make it work, we need only a key board! And how? because we know that each flight sim has the option to perform any duty from your key board, like if wee want to open the aircraft main door we need to write in = Shift + E and the door will open. We can do the same for our engines so you can start to make the commands like, ignition engine 1 = Q and ignition engine 2 = W  ,etc.
Once this is understand we need now to take our keyboard or buy another one and take a look on it. Start to open it very gently in order to remove for now the first front face with all the the letters. We are going to see smething like this:




In the key board we will see the keyboard card normally located on the right side and three transparent sheets
one over the other. We can notice that the sheets have circuits that if we see they belong to each keyboard letter and each letter is connected to one slot to the keyboard card. Take a look and see that only the first and the third sheet are connected to the card and the second sheet only separates them one from each other. This is because without this sheet the circuits will interfered and the keyboard will not function.
The keyboard card is separated by two slots, in some keyboards there is the short slot and the long slot but in almost they are identical. For don't start to bee confused let say that there are two slots name RED and the other YELLOW.
In the picture above I made an example for creating the letter Q and the letter W, I hope you understand this for now that (RED 1 + YELLOW 1 = Q) and (RED 1 + YELLOW 2 = W).
With your keyboard like it appears in the image above.




Ok, so now we need to take a multimeter to know every keyboard letter that correspond to each slot. Doing this will help us to define which commands are we going to use in our flight simulator.
Start to find the key board letters by placing your multimeter in the keyboard number 1 and then find to wich red slot correspond. W will notice this when you are going to see a change in amps in the multimeter. For example, (number 1 correspond to red slot number 6) and will belong to sheet 1 or 3 in the keboard.. Take note of this in your not book. Then do the same thing with the other sheet and find wich yellow slot correspond the number 1, for example, (number 1 correspond to yellow slot number 11).
In your note book will apear for our number 1: (1 = red6 + yellow11)




Having the first one, we must do the same process but with every letter, at least the number of commands we are going to use for your flight sim. In my case I use like 75 commands.
So lets write it all, (Remeber that not all the keyboards have the same commands).

A_RED9 YELLOW6
B_RED12 ELLOW11
C_RED11 YELLOW13
D_RED9 YELLOW 13
E_RED10 YELLOW13
F_RED9 YELLOW11
G_RED4 YELLOW11
H_RED4 YELLOW10
I_RED10 YELLOW9
J_RED9 YELLOW10
K_RED9 YELLOW9
L  _RED9 YELLOW8
M _RED11 YELLOW10
N_RED12 YELLOW 10.....

F1_YELLOW2 RED1
F2_YELLOW2 RED13
F3_YELLOW3 RED13
F4-YELLOW4 RED13....

ENTER_RED11 YELLOW12
SPACE _RED12 YELLOW12
SHIFT_RED2 YELLOW3
ALT_RED13 YELLOW4....

; _RED11 YELLOW9
. _RED11 YELLOW8
= _RED12 YELLOW7
º _RED1  YELLOW4....

1_RED6 YELLOW11
2 _RED9 RED4
3 _RED9 RED7
4 _RED4 YELLOW3....

(In some cases a key may be connect to a same slot like the number 2).
I think for now we have finished the hardest process of our flight simulator cockpit!
For our last step in this chapter we need now how to define which kind of commands we would like to use for our cockpit, like we said before we want the ignition for the engine number 1 to be the letter Q. This is easy because we know now which systems we are going to use by the design we made before. Again this ones I we should write it down. In my sim I used this ones,

YAW DAMPER
AVIONICS
BATTERY
FUEL PUMPS
PITOT
FLAPS
LANDING GEAR
COWL FLAPS
PARKING BRAKE
GENERATOR/ALTERNATOR
IDENT ADF
IDENT NAV 1
IDENT NAV 2
LANDING LIGHTS
TAXI LIGHTA
NAV LIGHTS
BEACON LIGHTS
STROBE LIGHTS
AUTO PILOT
FD
HDG
CRS
ALT
VS
IAS...

PAUSE
NEXT VIEW
HIDE PANEL
ATC....

And other more. The thing here is to make our cockpit in order to no longer use our mouse to make any task in our flight simulator. I hope every thing until here is understood. Lets move to the nest phase...

Setting-Up


Our structure is ready and we have understand the interface, its time to start setting-up everything together.
First remove our keyboard card and disconnect or desold the slots but keep well the USB connection, be gentle with that. After we remove the keyboard card locate this one in a piece of PVC, in my case I used a lid of a topper ware, that was perfect. Then secure it by screws.


Once this is ready, we have to buy like 100 meters of stereo cables, this ones we can find them very cheap in a car shop. Then with this cables take like 25 pieces of 15 centimeters, then we must weld this ones very
careful to each pin of each slot. If one cable is bad welded or it touch another one it wont work!
In my case I weld each cable and then I connected them to a series of slots dived by the slot red and the slot yellow. Doing this will help us to have our key board card stable and the cables weld to the pins are not going to move.
After that, take another 25 pieces of cable but now of approximately 30 centimeters each one and connect them from the series of connectors: Like this we have now our pins of our slots red and yellow available very easy to crate whichever command we want. We can take then bigger connectors for making each bottom interface.


Excellent! After the big connectors have been placed, we should have theoretically this image in our interface:


We can see here that we have made a better interface for easy management of our keyboard card. We know also which combination of pins make each key and the commands we want. (In this image are missing some big connectors because the size of my sheet).
So next go to a electronic shop and buy one switch for each command, In my case I bought like 75 but I recommend you to buy some extra more because in some cases they doesn't work properly. This switches must be the kind (open-close) it means that when you push the bottom it will close momentarily send the signal and simulate a keyboard letter. The bottoms may cost like .25 to .75 USD but it may depend on quality.
Ok, now we are going to do our first experiment and let see if we have made it...



For example, lets try number 4 and we want to make this command the Auto-Pilot disconnect system.
We wrote before in our notebook that number 4 has the combination: (RED4 + YELLOW3).
Take some cable and weld our bottom. After that we can now connect our switches to the big connectors of our interface, plug the keyboard card with the USB cable to your PC, open the note path and click on the bottom, if it write 4 you have achieve everything! This will be like this:


After we have placed our keyboard card, we can start know connecting everything together.
To simplify the process of our connections we can make some shortcuts between each switch. For this we have to connect our first switch in order to have our first two cables crossing the structure. My tip for you is to start connecting the switches from the farthest to the closest. 
For this next picture we use for example the letter (A) by the combination: A = (YELLOW3 + RED1). So to save us some space and cables we take the closest combination that contains the YELLOW3 or RED1. For letter B we can say that it uses the combination (YELLOW1 + RED1). This two letters are closest together so we use only a short piece of cable for RED1 in the letter B.
Let see what we are talking about:


After this you can make each connection with this process, but remember to do this one by one. 
If  you are thinking to make a huge cockpit with a lot of cables, I advice you to mark each cable as close as possible with their corresponding color and number. 
Marking the cables will make your maintenance easier to do later. Remember that this interface should fail some times and you need to know in witch place it is going bad.
When everything is finished, lets go to the flight simulator options to set each command.

Remember, my cockpit it is not the best cockpit ever but It helped me a lot with my flights and I still enjoying flying with it. 
I hope you are going to do a better one...

I leave you some pictures here, 













For more information contact me: sotochristian2@hotmail.com
See my you tube channel:  http://www.youtube.com/user/gallitosoto2?feature=mhee

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